A scene of industrial revolution during the Victorian era in England.

The era of Queen Victoria’s reign (1837-1901). The period is sometimes dated from 1832 (the passage of the Reform Bill). This period is regarded as an era of intense and prolific activity in literature, especially by novelists and poets, philosophers, and essayists while dramatists of any note are few. This time is considered as the rich period as indicated by its works and imperialism began in her rule. Science likewise began to create and technology came to its breath. It was a time of industrial, social, political, scientific, and military change inside the United Kingdom, and was set apart by an extraordinary extension of the British Empire.

Victoria, who rose to the seat at age 18 after the demise of her uncle, William IV, is Britain’s second-longest ruling ruler. At only 4-feet-11-inches tall, her standard during perhaps the best period saw the nation filling in as the world’s greatest realm, with one-fourth of the worldwide populace owing loyalty to the queen.

It was the time of the world’s first Industrial Revolution, political and social change, Charles Dickens and Charles Darwin, a rail route, and the telephone and telegraph. In any case, the Victorian Era—the 63-year time frame from 1837-1901 that denoted the rule of England’s Queen Victoria—was additionally considered a to be of country life as urban communities quickly developed and extended, long and controlled factory hours, the beginning of the Crimean War and Jack the Ripper.

Industrial Revolution

Rural to Urban

In 1837, Britain was as yet a rustic country with 80% of the populace living in the open country. A great many people were ranchers or turned fleece and cotton to mesh into the material. Before long new machines were designed that could do these positions in a small part of the time. This avoided numerous individuals with regard to work, so they ran to the towns looking for occupations in new ventures. By the center of the nineteenth century, more than half of the populace lived in towns and urban areas.

The Industrial Revolution quickly acquired speed during Victoria’s rule due to the power of steam. Victorian engineers created greater, quicker and all the more impressive machines that could run entire manufacturing plants. This prompted a monstrous expansion in the quantity of industrial facilities (especially in material processing plants or factories).

By 1870, over 100,000 steam engines were at work throughout Britain. The industry depended on steam and steam depended on coal. The number of coalfields doubled between 1851 and 1881.

Housing, Pollution and ill Health

Most urban communities and towns were not ready for the extraordinary increment of individuals searching for convenience to live approach their work place. There was a deficiency of houses, such countless individuals needed to share a room in different people groups houses. Rooms were leased to entire families or maybe a few families. Frequently ten or twelve individuals shared one room. On the off chance that there was no rooms to lease, individuals remained in housing houses.

Air pollution in England during the industrial revolution.

The houses conjointly failed to have running water and toilets. Up to one hundred homes had to share an outdoor pump to induce their water and share an outdoor restroom. to form things worse, the water from the pump was usually contaminated.

The house rubbish was thrown out into the slender streets and the air was full of black smoke from the factories’ chimneys. Dirty streets and incommodious living were the ideal piece of land for diseases. Quite 31,000 people died during a pestilence of cholera in 1832 and plenty of additional people were killed by rickettsiosis, pox, and infectious disease.

Working Conditions

Many factory owners placed profit over the health and safety of their staff. Youngsters and young women were hired in terrible conditions in textile mills and mines. Furnaces were operated with insufficient safety checks. Staff in factories and mills were deafened by steam hammers and machinery. Work hours were long and there have been no holidays.  

Inventions And Technology

The Victorian amount saw several major developments that created travel, communications, and trade easier for several people. The railways allowed people to travel cheaply and swiftly, creating up new opportunities for the rich and poor. The mail service expanded when the introduction of the ‘Penny Post’.  

Many of the everyday items which we take for granted nowadays like photography, telephones, electric bulbs, and cars were invented in Queen Victoria’s reign. 

Electric Telegraph was developed by William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone. Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876. 

Bicycles became highly regarded within the decade. The invention of the penny-farthing bicycle by British engineer, James Starley. The massive front wheel was virtually six feet from high to bottom, and also the seat was on top of the wheel. It had no brakes! This style was used till concerning 1880 once a bicycle with equal-sized wheels was developed. 

A man riding a very first bicycle

The German engineer Karl Benz designed the primary automotive vehicle in 1885. It was a three-wheel vehicle power-driven by a one-cylinder internal-combustion engine. The speed for cars was four miles per hour.  

An image of the first-ever car invented by Karl Benz.

Guglielmo Marconi, from Italy, is credited with the discovery of radio in 1895.

The Penny Black stamp is the world’s first adhesive postage stamp and is perhaps the most famous stamp ever issued. It was a one penny stamp with Queen Victoria’s profile against a black background and was produced in 1840. It was used for letters weighing less than half an ounce. For heavier letters the Twopenny Blue was used, which was similar, except that its background was blue.

Penny Black Stamp

Steam was used to power factory machinery, ships and trains. Great iron steamships were built made for crossing the ocean faster than ever before. Many people left Britain, sailing away to start a new life in Canada or Australia. 

By the 1880s steam power was also being used to turn dynamos in power stations in order to make electricity. 

Steam engine railway during the Victorian era.

 1840 was a time of railway madness. Trains were cheaper and quicker than canal boats or horse carriages. The primary steam trains had appeared before Victoria’s reign, however, within the decennium and early decade non-public corporations designed 8,000 miles of railways everywhere in the United Kingdom.  

Victorian Colonialism

The Victorian era in British history marks the division of British imperialism. Although a people policy of colonial growth had begun earlier, in the nineteenth century the United Kingdom not solely consolidated its existing empire but an unexampled growth in its colonial possessions. This method began once the 1857 Mutiny of India, India was placed beneath the direct management of the Crown, and continuing through the scramble for continent within the late 1800s, in order that by the tip of the century it can be with pride declared that “the sun never sets on a people Empire.” 

Map of the world showing British empire (British possessions)

Victorian Literature

As it is sort of evident from the title the type of literature that evolved throughout the reign of Victoria is splendidly called Victorian era literature. The literature of the Victorian age entered a replacement period after the romantic revival.

Charles Dickens was a vastly celebrated writer throughout the Victorian era, he was conjointly a social reformer furthermore a critic and satirist in his literary works. In fact, Dickens was himself influential in the modification of the Poor Laws, an underlying subject of his novels Oliver Twist and his novella, A Chrismas Carol within which Dickens describes the squalid, dirty conditions of London in vivid detail. In his novn his novel Bleak House, Dickens sharply criticizes materialism, informs about the distinction between the ideal and the reality. He believed that in sensible terms, the pursuit of unimaginative, completely rationalized society steered to misery.

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Alfred Tennyson has appeared the embodiment quite the other Victorian-era author of his age, each to his contemporaries and to modern readers. In his own day he was aforementioned to be—with Victoria and Prime Minister William Gladstone—one of the 3 most noted living persons, a name no alternative author writing in English has ever had.

Alfred Tennyson

The 1832 Poems was a great step forward poetically and included the first versions of some of Tennyson’s greatest works, such as The Lady of Shalott, The Palace of Art, A Dream of Fair Women, The Hesperides, and three wonderful poems conceived in the Pyrenees, Oenone,The Lotos-Eaters, and Mariana in the South.

The 1832 Poems was an excellent breakthrough poetically and contained the first versions of a number of Tennyson’s greatest works like: A Dream of Fair Women, The Hesperides, The Lady of Shalott, The Palace of Art and three tremendous poems planned within the Pyrenees, Mariana within the South, The Lotos-Eaters, and Oenone.

End of the Victorian Era

Victorian era ends with the death of Queen Victoria on the Isle of Wight at age 81. She is succeeded by Edward VII, her eldest son,the Queen who reigned until his death in Jan 22,1910.


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