Introduction

Romanticism was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century, extending between the approximate period of 1780 and the end in 1837 when Queen Victoria was crowned. It was marked by a rejection of the ideals and rules of the Enlightenment and Neoclassicism and by an affirmation of the need for a free, more subjective expression of passion, pathos, and personal feelings. This period is also regarded as the bridge between and connects the Enlightenment’s promotion of commerce, reason, and liberty and the Victorian experience of industrialization and empire.

At Its narrowest, the romantic period in Britain is usually taken to run between 1798, the year in which Coleridge and William Wordsworth published the first edition of Lyrical Ballads, and 1832 when Sir Walter Scott and Goethe died and the reform bill was passed.

The Romantic period was one of the key social changes in the United Kingdom, because of the rapid decrease in the rural population and therefore the fast development of overcrowded industrial cities that happened between 1798 and 1832. The movement of such a lot of individuals in Great Britain was the result of two forces: the Agricultural Revolution, that concerned enclosures that drove employees and their families off the land, and the industrial revolution that provided them employment in the factories and mills which were operated by steam-powered machines Indeed, Romanticism can also be seen as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, though was conjointly a revolt against blue-blooded social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, similarly as a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature.

Romanticism was characterized by its stress on feeling and individualism in addition to the glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval instead of the classical. It was partially a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the patrician social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and also the scientific rationalization of nature—all elements of modernism.

Literature

In English literature, the publication of the Lyrical Ballads of William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge sparked Romanticism. Wordsworth’s “Preface” to the second edition (1800) of Lyrical Ballads, within which he represented poetry as “the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings,” became the pronunciamento of the English Romantic movement in poetry. Blake was the third principal writer of the movement in England.

Romantic Poetry

The literature written before Romanticism was only available to the upper and elite class of the society and the lower segment of the society remained deprived of its charms. It means that before Romanticism, the literature was not representing the lower class of the society as the language used in writings was fanciful and bombastic.

The main aim of romantic poetry was to set forth elements of the new type of poetry, based on the “real language” and which avoids the poetic diction of much 18-century poetry.

First Generation poets

 William Blake (1757–1827) was a poet, painter, print-maker and was an early writer of his kind. Blake was generally unrecognized during his lifetime but is now considered a seminal figure in the history of both the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age. Among his most important works are Songs of Innocence  (1789) and Songs of Experience (1794), Visions of the Daughters of Albion (1793), The Book of Urizen (1794). The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, The Four Zoas, Jerusalem, and Milton.

After Blake, among the earliest Romantics were the Lake Poets, a small group of friends, including William Wordsworth (1770–1850), Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772–1834), Robert Southey (1774–1843), and journalist Thomas De Quincey (1785–1859). However, at the time, Walter Scott (1771–1832) was the most famous poet. Scott achieved immediate success with his long narrative poem The Lay of the Last Minstrel in 1805.

William Wordsworth (1770-1850) has long been one of the best-known and best-loved English poets. The Lyrical Ballads, written with Coleridge, is a landmark in the history of English romantic poetry. His celebration of nature and of the beauty and poetry in the commonplace embody a unified and coherent vision that was profoundly innovative. He became England’s poet laureate in 1843, a role he held until his death in 1850. His famous work consists of The Lucy Poems(1798-1801), The Thorn (1789), The Prelude (1805), and Wordsworth’s Poetical Work. His famous poems are; I Wandered Lonely As A Cloud, My Heart Leaps Up, We Are Seven, The Solitary Reaper, etc.

Samuel Taylor Coleridge is the premier poet-critic of modern English tradition, distinguished for the scope and influence of his thinking about literature as much as for his innovative verse. His poems of this period, speculative, meditative, and strangely oracular, put off early readers but survived the doubts of Wordsworth and Robert Southey to become recognized classics of the romantic idiom. Most of his notable works are; The Rime of the Ancient MarinerKubla KhanChristabelConversation poemsBiographia Literaria etc.

Second Generation Poets

The poets of the second generation, Gorge Gordon Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley and John Keats all had intense but short lives. They lived through the disillusionment of the post-revolutionary period, the savage violence of the terror and the threatening rise of the Napoleonic Empire.

George Gordon Byron was the prototype of the Romantic poet. He was heavily involved with contemporary social issues and like the hearers of his long narrative poems, Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage and Don Juan, was a melancholy and solitary figure whose action often defied social conventions. Like Shelley, he left England and live on the continent. He pursued adventure in Italy and Greece.

Percy Bysshe Shelley was the most revolutionary and non-conformist of the Romantic poets. He was an individualist and idealist who rejected the institutions of family, church, marriage, and the Christian faith and rebelled against all forms of tyranny. Shelley’s ideas were anarchic and he was considered dangerous by the conservative society of his time. Many of his poems address social and political issues. Among his notable work is Adonais, The Revolt Of Islam, Queen Mab, Ozymandias, Ode to the west wind, To a skylark, etc.

John Keats was born in London. His early life was marked by a series of personal tragedies: his father was killed when he was eight years old, his mother died when he was fourteen and one of his younger brothers died in infancy. He received relatively little formal education and at age sixteen he became an apprentice to an apothecary –surgeon. In 1816 Keats obtained a license to practice as an apothecary but abandoned the profession for poetry.

 Some of the most acclaimed works of Keats are “Ode to a Nightingale”, “Sleep and Poetry”, and the famous sonnet “On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer”.

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