A group of American poets whose work became particularly popular in the late 1950s. The best known of these writers are Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac, Gregory Corso and Lawrence Ferlinghetti. They are especially associated with San Francisco, U.S.A. Their ‘father figures’ were Kenneth Rexroth, Henry Miller and William Burroughs. The beat writers developed their own slang and a highly idiosyncratic style. Allen Ginsberg’s Howl and Other Poems (1956) represents as well as anything the disillusionment of the beat movement with modern society, its materialism and militarism. Later he published Kaddish and Other Poems (1961) and Reality Sandwiches (1963). Kerouac was important for his prose works On the Road (1957), The Dharma Bums (1958) and Big Sur (1962). But all these writers were a considerable fertilizing influence.


It was Kerouac who authored the term ‘Beat Generation.’ It was intended to portray how they felt beat down, vanquished and strange among the returning troopers and finance managers. The Beats were as much about a mentality and culture as they were about an abstract style. Truly, a significant number of the Beats came from upper-or working class foundations and went to esteemed colleges. For instance, Ginsberg and Kerouac met at Columbia University in New York. Be that as it may, they decided to defy cultural standards.

Prior to the Beats, there were the Modernists. In particular, there were individuals like T.S. Eliot, who composed verse as solid and formal as you’d anticipate from a person who resembles this. The Beat writers abhorred Eliot and his ascetics. Many Beat writers referred to the Romantics, similar to Shelley and Blake, as immediate impacts. The Romantics had opposed the intellectualism of the Enlightenment. By the 1950s, the pendulum had swung back towards the scholarly and the Beats moved it back toward the individual.

Beat artists looked to change verse into an outflow of certified lived insight. They read their work, here and there to the backup of reformist jazz, in such Beat fortresses as the Coexistence Bagel Shop and Lawrence Ferlinghetti’s City Lights book shop in San Francisco.

Allen Ginsberg’s Howl turned into the most agent lovely articulation of the Beat development: the actual sonnet epitomized the essence of the Beats’ voice; its first presentation, in 1955, was an untidy festival; and the vulgarity preliminary, in 1957, that followed its distribution showed the development’s social and political significance.

Ginsberg’s Howl and Other Poems
The cover of Allen Ginsberg’s Howl and Other Poems (1956).


Allen Ginsberg (1926 – 1997) was an American artist, scholar, and author. As a Columbia University understudy during the 1940s, he started companionships with William S. Burroughs and Jack Kerouac, framing the center of the Beat Generation. He vivaciously contradicted militarism, monetary realism, and sexual constraint, and he encapsulated different parts of this nonconformity with his perspectives on drugs, antagonism toward administration, and receptiveness to Eastern religions.

Ginsberg participated in many years of political dissent against everything from the Vietnam Battle to the Battle on drugs. His sonnet “September on Jessore Street” pointed out the predicament of Bangladeshi refugees. His assortment The Fall of America shared the yearly Public Book Grant for Verse in 1974. In 1979, he got the Public Expressions Club gold decoration and was enlisted into the American Foundation of Expressions and Letters. He was a Pulitzer Prize finalist in 1995 for his book Cosmopolitan Welcome: Sonnets 1986–1992.

Allen Ginsberg

Jack Kerouac (1922-1969) was an American author most popular for the novel ‘On the Road’ which turned into an American work of art, spearheading the Beat Age during the 1950s. Kerouac is perceived for his strategy for spontaneous prose. Specifically, his work covers themes like Catholic otherworldliness, jazz, Buddhism, drugs, poverty, and travel. He turned into an underground celebrity and, with different beats, a begetter of the hippie movement, despite the fact that he stayed opposing toward a portion of its politically extreme components.

In 1969, at age 47, Kerouac kicked the bucket due to abdominal hemorrhage caused by substantial drinking. Since his death, Kerouac’s literary prestige has grown, and several previously unseen works have been published. All of his books are in print today, including The Town and the CityOn the RoadDoctor SaxThe Dharma BumsMexico City BluesThe SubterraneansDesolation AngelsVisions of CodyThe Sea Is My BrotherSatori in Paris, and Big Sur.

Jack Kerouac
Jack Kerouac reading one of his short stories in New York City, 1958.

Lawrence Ferlinghetti is an American poet born on 24th March 1919, one of the founders of the Beat movement in San Francisco in the mid-1950s. His City Lights bookshop was an early gathering place of the Beats, and the publishing arm of City Lights was the first to print the Beats’ books of poetry.

San Francisco: City Lights bookstore
Window of City Lights bookstore, San Francisco.

Shortly before his 100th birthday, Ferlinghetti published the autobiographical novel Little Boy (2019).

The writer Lawrence Ferlinghetti, pictured in Berlin in 2004, is now 101 years old.

Poetry is the shortest distance between two humans.

Lawrence Ferlinghetti

End Of Movement

By around 1960, the Beat development as a trend had blurred, however its tests with structure and its social commitment proceeded and had enduring impacts. The development delivered various huge scholars, including Ferlinghetti, Gregory Corso, Philip Whalen, and Gary Snyder; the artist LeRoi Jones had likewise been essential for the Beat circle and distributed their work in his magazine Yugen, however he broke with the development during the 1960s. The Beats prepared for more extensive acknowledgment of other unconventional and recently disregarded journalists, like the Dark Mountain artists and the writer William S. Burroughs.

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